Dr Carolyn Gates staff profile picture

Contact details +64 (06) 356 9099  ext. 85140

Dr Carolyn Gates

Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Epidemiology

School of Veterinary Science

I completed my veterinary degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 2010 concentrating in food animal production medicine and veterinary public health.  After a brief spell in private practice, I completed a PhD at the University of Edinburgh focusing on the use of national livestock movement databases to understand patterns of disease transmission and to develop novel approaches to disease control in the British cattle industry.  Prior to joining Massey University, I worked as a research consultant on a veterinary syndromic surveillance project at Texas A&M University and as a clinical staff veterinarian at two large animal shelters in Philadelphia.

Professional

Contact details

  • Ph: + 64 (06) 951 8140
    Location: 2.04, Wool Building
    Campus: Turitea

Research Expertise

Research Interests

My research focuses on understanding how routine management practices influence the spread of infectious diseases within and between livestock farms.  In particular, I am interested in:

  • monitoring routinely collected animal health information for trends that may indicate emerging farm and industry level disease concerns
  • evaluating the potential for diseases to spread between farms through the movements of personnel, vehicles, and equipment from livestock support services
  • modelling the impact of national animal health programmes on disease transmission dynamics and farm profitability
  • understanding the motivations behind farmers' decisions to participate in herd health improvement schemes
  • developing interactive software tools to facilitate knowledge exchange between academia and industry

Area of Expertise

Field of research codes
Agricultural And Veterinary Sciences (070000): Agricultural Production Systems Simulation (070103): Agricultural Systems Analysis and Modelling (070105): Agriculture, Land and Farm Management (070100): Animal Management (070203): Animal Production (070200): Animal Protection (Pests and Pathogens) (070205): Veterinary Epidemiology (070704): Veterinary Sciences (070700)

Research Projects

Summary of Research Projects

Position Current Completed
Project Leader 5 3
Team Member 1 0

Current Projects

Project Title: Antimicrobial Stewardship: Surveillance, Research & Engagement (ASSURE) in New Zealand farm animal production systems (Clare Phythian)

Date Range: 2018 - 2021

Funding Body: Royal Society of New Zealand

Project Team:

Project Title: NSC - Project 2.1 - Biosecurity network interventions (NZ Biological Heritage National Science Challenge)

Date Range: 2015 - 2019

Funding Body: Lincoln University

Project Team:

Research Outputs

Journal

Gates, MC., Zito, S., Walker, JK., & Dale, AR. (2019). Owner perceptions and management of the adverse behavioural effects of fireworks on companion animals: an update.. N Z Vet J. , 1-16
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Evans, CA., Weir, AM., Heuer, C., & Weston, JF. (2019). Recommendations for the testing and control of bovine viral diarrhoea in New Zealand pastoral cattle production systems. New Zealand Veterinary Journal.
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Heuer, C., Weston, J.
Gates, MC., Han, JH., Evans, CA., Weston, JF., & Heuer, C. (2019). Assessing the use of diagnostic laboratory accession data to support national bovine viral diarrhoea control in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 67(4), 194-202
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Heuer, C., Weston, J.
Yang, DA., Gates, MC., Müller, KR., & Laven, RA. (2019). Bayesian analysis of herd-level risk factors for bovine digital dermatitis in New Zealand dairy herds. BMC Veterinary Research. 15(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Laven, R.
Descovich, KA., Richmond, SE., Leach, MC., Buchanan-Smith, HM., Flecknell, P., Farningham, DAH., . . . Vick, S-J. (2019). Opportunities for refinement in neuroscience: Indicators of wellness and post-operative pain in laboratory macaques.. ALTEX.
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Hidano, A., & Gates, MC. (2019). Why sold, not culled? Analysing farm and animal characteristics associated with livestock selling practices. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 166, 65-77
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Hidano, A.
Zito, S., Walker, J., Carolyn Gates, M., & Dale, A. (2019). A preliminary description of companion cat, managed stray cat, and unmanaged stray cat welfare in auckland, New Zealand using a 5-component assessment scale. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 6(FEB)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Yang, DA., Johnson, WO., Müller, KR., Gates, MC., & Laven, RA. (2019). Estimating the herd and cow level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis on New Zealand dairy farms: A Bayesian superpopulation approach. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 165, 76-84
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Laven, R., Mueller, K.
Gates, MC., Zito, S., Harvey, LC., Dale, A., & Walker, JK. (2019). Assessing obesity in adult dogs and cats presenting for routine vaccination appointments in the North Island of New Zealand using electronic medical records data. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 67(3), 126-133
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Evans, CA., Pinior, B., Larska, M., Graham, D., Schweizer, M., Guidarini, C., . . . Gates, MC. (2019). Global knowledge gaps in the prevention and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 66(2), 640-652
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Han, JH., Holter, J., Moffat, J., Weston, JF., Heuer, C., & Gates, MC. (2018). Using Bayesian network modelling to untangle farm management risk factors for bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 161, 75-82
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Heuer, C., Weston, J.
Bayley, KD., Read, RA., & Gates, MC. (2018). Superficial keratectomy as a treatment for non-healing corneal ulceration associated with primary corneal endothelial degeneration. Veterinary Ophthalmology.
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Han, JH., Weir, AM., Weston, JF., Heuer, C., & Gates, MC. (2018). Elimination of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in New Zealand: a review of research progress and future directions. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 66(6), 273-280
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Heuer, C., Weston, J.
Gates, MC., Zito, S., Thomas, J., & Dale, A. (2018). Post-adoption problem behaviours in adolescent and adult dogs rehomed through a New Zealand animal shelter. Animals. 8(6)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Hidano, A., Enticott, G., Christley, RM., & Gates, MC. (2018). Modeling dynamic human behavioral changes in animal disease models: Challenges and opportunities for addressing bias. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5(JUN)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Hidano, A.
Van Andel, M., Hollings, T., Bradhurst, R., Robinson, A., Burgman, M., Gates, MC., . . . Carpenter, T. (2018). Does size matter to models? Exploring the effect of herd size on outputs of a herd-level disease spread simulator. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5(MAY)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Odom, TF., & Sawicki, RK. (2018). Experience and confidence of final year veterinary students in performing desexing surgeries. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 66(4), 210-215
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Odom, T., Sawicki, R.
Luckman, C., & Gates, MC. (2017). Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in client-owned cats in New Zealand. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports.
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Hinds, HJ., & Dale, A. (2017). Preliminary description of aging cats and dogs presented to a New Zealand first-opinion veterinary clinic at end-of-life. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 65(6), 313-317
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Vigeant, S., & Dale, A. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 65(6), 285-291
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Muellner, P., Muellner, U., Carolyn Gates, M., Pearce, T., Ahlstrom, C., O'Neill, D., . . . Cave, NJ. (2016). Evidence in practice - A pilot study leveraging companion animal and equine health data from primary care veterinary clinics in New Zealand. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 3(DEC)
[Journal article]Authored by: Cave, N., Gates, M.
Hidano, A., Carpenter, TE., Stevenson, MA., & Gates, MC. (2016). Evaluating the efficacy of regionalisation in limiting high-risk livestock trade movements. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 133, 31-41
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M., Hidano, A.
Gates, MC., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2015). Controlling infectious disease through the targeted manipulation of contact network structure. Epidemics. 12, 11-19
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Holmstrom, LK., Biggers, KE., & Beckham, TR. (2015). Integrating novel data streams to support biosurveillance in commercial livestock production systems in developed countries: challenges and opportunities.. Front Public Health. 3, 74
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Humphry, RW., Gunn, GJ., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2014). Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements.. Vet Res. 45, 110
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2014). Controlling infectious disease through the targeted manipulation of contact network structure. Epidemics.
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Humphry, RW., Gunn, GJ., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2014). Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: Quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements. Veterinary Research. 45(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2014). Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry. PLoS ONE. 9(3)
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2014). Characteristics of replacement breeding cattle trade in Great Britain. Veterinary Record. 175(3), 67
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2014). Declines in canine endoparasite prevalence associated with the introduction of commercial heartworm and flea preventatives from 1984 to 2007. Veterinary parasitology. 204(3-4), 265-268
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Volkova, VV., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2013). Impact of changes in cattle movement regulations on the risks of bovine tuberculosis for Scottish farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 108(2-3), 125-136
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2013). Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using National cattle movement records. Veterinary Record. 173(20), 499
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Woolhouse, MEJ., Gunn, GJ., & Humphry, RW. (2013). Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 112(3-4), 285-295
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Volkova, VV., & Woolhouse, MEJ. (2013). Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in low incidence regions related to the movements of cattle. BMC Veterinary Research. 9
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., Humphry, RW., & Gunn, GJ. (2013). Associations between bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity and performance indicators in beef suckler and dairy herds. Veterinary Journal. 198(3), 631-637
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2011). Recipe websites: A novel medium for disseminating food safety and origin information. Food Protection Trends. 31(2), 105-109
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2011). Efficacy of heartworm preventatives against ascarids and hookworms in client-owned dogs: A retrospective case control study. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 34(2), 116-119
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2010). Factors influencing heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use in patients presenting to a veterinary teaching hospital. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 93(2-3), 193-200
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Boston, RC. (2009). Irrigation linked to a greater incidence of human and veterinary West Nile virus cases in the United States from 2004 to 2006. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 89(1-2), 134-137
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2009). Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory. Journal of Parasitology. 95(5), 1213-1214
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2009). One Health continuing medical education: An avenue for advancing interdisciplinary communication on One Health issues. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 234(11), 1384-1388
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2009). Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats. Veterinary Parasitology. 166(1-2), 153-158
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC., & Nolan, TJ. (2009). Risk factors for endoparasitism in dogs: Retrospective case-control study of 6578 veterinary teaching hospital cases. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 50(12), 636-640
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2007). The influence of air pollution on thoroughbred race performance. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology. 4, 79-88
[Journal article]Authored by: Gates, M.

Thesis

Gates, MC. (2013). Controlling endemic disease in cattle populations: current challenges and future opportunities. (Doctoral Thesis)
[Doctoral Thesis]Authored by: Gates, M.

Conference

Yang, A., Johnson, W., Mueller, K., Gates, M., & Laven, R. (2019). Confirming freedom from bovine digital dermatitis of dairy farms in the West Coast region of New Zealand. In Lameness in Ruminants 2019 Proceedings(pp. 292 - 292). , 20th International Symposium and 12th International Conference on Lameness in Ruminants 2019
[Conference Abstract]Authored by: Gates, M., Laven, R., Mueller, K.
Yang, A., Gates, M., Mueller, K., & Laven, R. (2019). Modelling infection dynamic of bovine digital dermatitis in pasture-based system in New Zealand. In Lameness in Ruminants 2019 Proceedings(pp. 208 - 208). , 20th International Symposium and 12th International Conference on Lameness in Ruminants 2019
[Conference Abstract]Authored by: Gates, M., Laven, R., Mueller, K.
Yang, A., Wesley, O., Mueller, K., Gates, M., & Laven, R. (2019). Estimating the herd and cow level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis on New Zealand dairy farms: A Bayesian superpopulation approach. In Lameness in Ruminants 2019 Proceedings(pp. 207 - 207). , 20th International Symposium and 12th International Conference on Lameness in Ruminants 2019
[Conference Abstract]Authored by: Gates, M., Laven, R., Mueller, K.
Gates, M., Littlewood, K., Kongara, K., Sawicki, R., & Odom, T. (2018). How many ways to spay? Improving student confidence and competence in performing desexing surgeries at the time of graduation. Poster session presented at the meeting of ISVEE 15. Chiang Mai, Thailand
[Conference Poster]Authored by: Gates, M., Kongara, K., Odom, T., Sawicki, R.
Gates, MC., Dwyer, C., Grinberg, A., & Biggs, P. (2017, July). Mastitis Mayhem: an on-farm exercise for integrating epidemiology into clinical skills training. Presented at ANCVS Science Week. Gold Coast Australia.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Biggs, P., Gates, M., Grinberg, A.
Gates, MC. (2013). Controlling endemic cattle diseases through the targeted manipulation of contact network topology. Poster session presented at the meeting of Epidemics 4
[Conference Poster]Authored by: Gates, M.
Gates, MC. (2013, November). Controlling endemic cattle diseases through improved herd reproductive management. Presented at Epidemics 4. Amsterdam.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Gates, M.

Supervision and Teaching

Summary of Doctoral Supervision

Position Current Completed
Supervisor 3 1
Co-supervisor 3 0

Courses Coordinated

  • 227.416 Integrative Studies in Farm Animal Production Medicine

Current Doctoral Supervision

Supervisor of:

  • Jun Hee Han - Doctor of Philosophy
    Establishment of a national eradication programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus in New Zealand
  • Sabrina Greening - Doctor of Philosophy
    Epidemiology and evolution of pathogens in livestock networks
  • Mary Van Beest Van Andel - Doctor of Philosophy
    Novel applications of animal demographic and animal movement

Co-supervisor of:

  • Alvaro Wehrle Martinez - Doctor of Philosophy
    Bovine Connective tissue diseases
  • Rudolfo Bueno - Doctor of Philosophy
    Development and application of field deployable diagnostic tests to aid rapid differential diagnosis of important infectious animal diseases
  • Aaron Yang - Doctor of Philosophy
    Veterinary Studies of Bovine Digital Dermatitis in Pasture-based Dairy System

Completed Doctoral Supervision

Supervisor of:

  • 2018 - Arata Hidano - Doctor of Philosophy
    Optimising the use of new data streams for making epidemiological inferences in veterinary epidemiology

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