Published articles:

McDonald, G. W., Cardwell, R. J., Kim, J., van Delden, H., Murray, C. F. and M. van den Belt, (2014). Clustering Geographic Information System (GIS) Polygons: A practical approach to urban land use mapping for spatially-explicit dynamic modelling. Land Use Policy.

van den Belt, M., & Blake, D. (2014). Ecosystem services in New Zealand agro-ecosystems: a literature review. Science Direct. doi:

Bourget, E. C., Langsdale. S.M., van den Belt, M. (2013). Introduction to the Featured Collection of Journal of American Water Resource Association:  Collaborative Modeling for Decision Support as a Tool to Implement Integrated Water Resources Management, Wiley.

van den Belt, M., H. Schiele and V. Forgie. (2013, May 13). Integrated Freshwater Solutions - A New Zealand Application of Mediated Modeling. Special Issue of Journal of American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) on Collaborative Modeling.

van den Belt, M., T. Bowen, K. Slee and V. Forgie. (2013, May 13). Flood Protection: highlighting an investment trap between built and natural capital. Special Issue of Journal of American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) on Collaborative Modeling, Wiley.

van den Belt, M., & Blake, D. (2014). Ecosystem services in New Zealand agro-ecosystems: a literature review. Science Direct. doi:

van Den Belt, M., Kenyan, J. R., Krueger, E., Maynard, A., Roy, M. G., & Raphael, I. (2010). Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1185 (Ecological Economics Reviews), 196-210. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05164.x

Dr Scott Bremer has published the following journal articles based on his PhD research. Dr Bremer was based at EERNZ during his PhD and now works as a researcher for the Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, The University of Bergen, Norway.   

Scott Bremer (2014)  'No right to rubbish': Mobilising post-normal science for planning Gisborne's wastewater outfall published in Marine Policy 46 (2014), 22-30.  Abstract:

The field of integrated coastal management (ICM) represents a rich literature on the science–policy interface. While initially a project in science-based management, the evolution of ICM over the past 40 years has seen some scholars and practitioners promoting a more participatory science–policy interface, with ‘post-normal science’ put forward as one promising approach to framing this interface. This same evolution is seen in New Zealand’s coastal management, with increasing numbers of participatory initiatives implemented as a result of a growing dissatisfaction with science-based management to address certain issues. This paper presents the study of the successful ‘WARG’ (Wastewater Adjournment Review Group) initiative in Gisborne, where they engaged an approach closely resembling post-normal science, for planning for the city’s waste water outfall. The study employed the conceptual lens of post- normal science to describe the WARG, before analysing how it contributed to high quality ICM. The hope was that by studying the WARG as post-normal science, and how this approach has promoted successful ICM in Gisborne, this will yield insights into how the post-normal science perspective may contribute to ICM more broadly. The study found that the WARG did closely correspond to the principles of post- normal science, and that these characteristics largely accounted for the successes of the WARG. More broadly it showed that, where the uncertainty and contentiousness of an issue defies science-based management, a participatory approach is more appropriate, and post-normal science represents a realistic approach. Indeed, the WARG demonstrated that a successfully-run post-normal science approach can contribute to high quality ICM, which is (i)substantively, founded in a more comprehensive knowledge base; (ii) normatively, more democratic; and (iii) instrumentally, more likely to arrive at consensus.

Full article available at:

Scott Bremer & Bruce Glavovic (2013): Mobilizing Knowledge for Coastal Governance: Re-Framing the Science–Policy Interface for Integrated Coastal Management, Coastal Management, 41:1, 39-56. Abstract:

Integrated coastal management (ICM) has long sought to create political settings within which coastal communities can arrive at collective decisions, and support these decisions with the best quality knowledge available. Traditionally this has been through the integration of natural and social science with the political processes of decision-making and management, across the so-called science–policy interface. Contemporary developments in the field have seen the rising prominence of governance models, with a number of scholars arguing this to have implications for the shape of the science–policy interface. This article reviews the evolution in the theory and practice of the science–policy interface for ICM, before arguing that in the future the interface should be framed as a “governance setting.” To this extent, the article distills four important guiding principles, including an interface that: (i) espouses an epistemology based in the dialogic mobilization of knowledge; (ii) includes all diverse knowledge perspectives; (iii) integrates disparate knowledge systems through dialogic reciprocity and co-existence; and (iv) has explicit regard for the negotiated quality of knowledge relative to a specific issue.

Full article available at:

Scott Bremer & Bruce Glavovic (2013): Exploring the science–policy interface for Integrated Coastal Management in New Zealand, Ocean and Coastal Management, 84, 107-118. Abstract:

Integrated Coastal Management has seen an on-going debate on the best way of integrating knowledge with political decision-making across the so-called ‘science–policy interface’. This paper engages with this debate by presenting an empirical study into practice at the science–policy interface supporting coastal management in New Zealand. The research takes as its point of departure a notional dichotomy in the Integrated Coastal Management literature between two broad traditions; one espousing a ‘science-based interface’, the other a ‘participatory interface’. Structured according to this conceptual framework, the research describes and analyses the diverse ways in which these two traditions have found practical expression across New Zealand, both at the national scale and according to a comprehensive survey of coastal managers across all 16 regional councils. The analysis extends to the relationship between these two traditions, and how this relationship has determined the evolution of the science–policy interface.

This paper describes the traditional dominance of science-based coastal management in New Zealand, but highlights an important paradox; while science is valorised as the most robust knowledge for decision-making under the statutory decision-making process, there are pervasive financial, procedural and institutional barriers to its collection, meaning that many decisions are made under significant uncertainty. Against the background of this paradox, local government has increasingly departed from the statutory process, according to a philosophy of co-management. This extends to new strategies for mobilising knowledge, both through knowledge partnerships to generate more science, and participatory approaches to mobilise other forms of traditional and local knowledge. These participatory interfaces take many forms, but typically see scientists engaged alongside other knowledge holders within an inclusive decision-making process. All knowledge systems form a common pool of evidence on which to base decisions, and science is used strategically to fill knowledge gaps identified by a participatory process. Therefore, while science-based coastal management remains dominant in New Zealand, it is increasingly couched within a participatory tradition that valorises other knowledge systems as well.

Full article available at:

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