SHORE research team

Dr Christopher Wilkins

CW for website (113x150)1.jpg Dr Chris Wilkins is a senior researcher and leader of the illegal drug research team at SHORE, Massey University, New Zealand. Dr Wilkins has a doctorate in Economics and research expertise in drug trends, drug markets, drugs and crime, and drug policy. Over the past ten years he has completed a range of studies of drug use in New Zealand with particular focus on methamphetamine, cannabis, legal highs, ecstasy and the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals. He played a central role in the development of NZ-ADUM (New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring system) and the IDMS (Illicit Drug Monitoring System) and currently leads these research studies. Dr Wilkins has published numerous journal articles on drug use, contributed to three books and regularly reviews manuscripts for Addiction, the International Journal of Drug Policy, Drug & Alcohol Review and  Drug and Alcohol Dependence. He has also reviewed grant applications to the Health Research Council (HRC) and Royal Society of New Zealand (RSNZ). Dr Wilkins has been an invited speaker at international meetings convened by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), and at the United States National Institute for Drug Abuse Community Epidemiology Working Group (CEWG) annual meeting. He regularly presents papers at the annual meetings of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy (ISSDP).

21 November 2016

The New Zealand Police have  released the latest New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring Programme Report (NZ-ADUM) which is produced by SHORE staff members. The 2015 Report  was authored by project leader Chris Wilkins, with Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Helen Moewaka Barnes, Lanuola Asiasiga and Marta Rychert.

April 2016 - release of latest IDMS report

Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Wong, K., Rychert, M. Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand 2006-2014: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University.   IDMS 2014 Final Report.pdf (6,144 KB)

December 2015 - New Zealand Police release of 2014 NZ-ADUM survey report

The New Zealand Police have  released the latest New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring Programme Report (NZ-ADUM) which is produced by SHORE staff members. The 2014 Report  was authored by project Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert and Helen Moewaka Barnes.

Email: c.wilkins@massey.ac.nz

Publications

Journal articles

Lai, F., Wilkins, C., Thai, P., & Mueller, J. (2016). An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, in press.

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). Legal high industry business and lobbying strategies under a legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, ‘legal highs’) in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy, in press.

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) (‘legal highs’) in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, in press.

Wilkins, C., & Rychert, M. (2016). Recent developments with the New Zealand regulated market approach to 'low risk' psychoactive products. Addiction, published online 26 July, doi: 10.1111/add.13495.

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). Thirty-one psychoactive plants exempted from New Zealand’s Psychoactive Substances Act 2013. Addiction, published online 23 August, doi: 10.1111/add.13526.

Wilkins, C. (2016). After the legalisation of cannabis: the Cannabis Incorporated Society (CIS) regulatory model for recreational cannabis in New Zealand [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1433), 17-20. A378

Wilkins, C., Parker, K., Prasad, J., & Jawalkar, S. (2016). Do police arrestees substitute legal highs for other drugs? International Journal of Drug Policy, in press.

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). What products are considered psychoactive under New Zealand’s regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, ‘legal highs’)? Implications for law enforcement and penalties. Drug Testing and Analysis, doi: 10.1002/dta.1943.

Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Wong, K., Rychert, M., & Graydon-Guy, T. (2015). An exploratory study of the health harms and utilisation of health services of frequent legal high users under the interim regulated legal high market in central Auckland. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1431), 51-58. A384

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, 1273-1278. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.08.006. A372

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). Did we have the wrong debate about Elixinol™ and medicinal cannabis? New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1421), 69-70.

Barratt, M., Potter, G., Wouters, M., Wilkins, C., Werse, B., Perälä, J., . . . Blok, T. (2015). Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(3), 238-249. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004. A371

Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). Is the recent ban on animal testing of legal high products a fatal blow to the development of a legal market for ‘low-risk’ psychoactive products in New Zealand? [Letter]. Addiction, 110(4), 714-715. doi:10.1111/add.12853.

Wilkins, C. (2014). Recent developments with the establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33(6), 678-680. doi:10.1111/dar.12203.

Schneider, C., Zobel, F., & Wilkins, C. (2014). Neuseeland und die Reguliering von Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen / Looking for a new way: New Zealand and the regulation of NPS. SuchtMagazin, 6, 41-45.

Wilkins, C. (2014). The interim regulated legal market for NPS (‘legal high’) products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6, 868-875. DOI: 10.1002/dta.1643. A347

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., & Parker, K. (2014). The impact of the prohibition of benzylpiperazine (BZP) "legal highs" on the availability, price and strength of BZP in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 144, 47-52.

Wilkins, C. (2014). A critical first assessment of the new pre-market approval regime for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand. Addiction, 109(10), 1580-1586.

Wilkins, C., Sheridan, J., Adams, P., Russell, B., & Newcombe, D. (2013). Reply to Sumnall (2013), 'The New Zealand new psychoactive substances regime - a step in the right direction, but questions still remain'. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(11),1078-1079.

Wilkins, C., Sheridan, J., Adams, P., Russell, B., Ram, S., & Newcombe, D. (2013). The new psychoactive substances regime in New Zealand: A different approach to regulation. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(7), 584-589, doi:10.1177/0269881113491441. A325

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2013). The impact of the prohibition of BZP legal highs on the prevalence of BZP, new legal highs and other drug use in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 127(1-3), 72-80. doi: org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.06.014. A323

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2012). Criminal justice outcomes for cannabis use offences in New Zealand, 1991–2008. International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.03.002.

Wilkins, C. (2011). A paradigm shift in recreational drug use: the challenge of legal highs in New Zealand [Letter]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1339). A285

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., Griffiths, R. (2011). Recent trends in pharmaceutical drug use among frequent injecting drug users, frequent methamphetamine users and frequent ecstasy users in New Zealand, 2006–2009. Drug and Alcohol Review 30, 255-263. A276

Wilkins, C. & Sweetsur, P. (2011). The association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Addiction, 106(4). 789-797. [Abstract] 

Winstock, A. & Wilkins, C. (2011) 'Legal highs' - the challenge of psychoactive substances. Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies, Nr. 16.

Wilkins, C. & Sweetsur, P. (2010). Differences in harm from legal BZP/TFMPP party pills between North Island and South Island users in New Zealand: A case of effective industry self regulation? International Journal of Drug Policy, 21. 86-90. [Abstract] A246

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2010). The association between the number of days of methamphetamine use and the level of earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Bulletin on Narcotics.

Bouchard, M. & Wilkins, C. (2009). Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. Global Crime, 10. 1-5. [Abstract] A235

Wilkins C., Sweetsur P. and Girling M. (2008). Patterns of benzylpiperazine / trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (BZP/TFMPP) party pill use and adverse effects in a population sample in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27. 633-639. [Abstract] A224

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2008). Tracking the availability of drugs in New Zealand: implications for policy response. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 34. 163-171. [Full text] A234

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2008). Trends in population drug use in New Zealand: findings from national household surveying of drug use in 1998, 2001, 2003, and 2006. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121. 61-71. [Full text] A216

Sheridan, J., Butler, R., Wilkins, C., Russell, B. (2007). Legal piperazine-containing party pills -- a new trend in substance misuse. Drug and Alcohol Review, 26. 335-343. [Abstract] A199

Wilkins C., Girling M. and Sweetsur P. (2007). The prevalence of use, dependency and harms of legal party pills containing BZP and TFMPP in New Zealand. Journal of Substance Use, 12(2). 1-12. [Abstract] A210

Wilkins, C. and Sweetsur, P. (2007). Individual dollar expenditure and earnings from cannabis in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18. 187-193. [Abstract] A200

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2006). Exploring the structure of the illegal market for Cannabis. De Economist, 154(3). 547-562. [Abstract] A189

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P. and Casswell, S. (2006). Recent population trends in amphetamine use in New Zealand: Comparisons of findings from national household drug surveying in 1998, 2001 and 2003. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1244). [Full text] A190

Wilkins, C., Reilly, J., Pledger, M. and Casswell, S. (2005). Estimating the dollar value of the illicit market for cannabis in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24(3). 227-234. [Abstract] A169

Wilkins, C., Reilly, J., Rose, E. and Casswell, S. (2005). Characteristics of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use in New Zealand: informing policy responses. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 25. 142-153. [Full text] A170

Wilkins C, Pledger M, Bhatta K, Casswell S. (2004). Patterns of amphetamine use in New Zealand: findings from the 2001 National Drug Survey. New Zealand Medical Journal, 117. 796-. [Full text, PDF] A155

Wilkins, C. & Casswell, S. (2003). Cannabis cultivation and organised crime in New Zealand. Contemporary Drug Problems, 30(Winter). 757-777. A157

Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K., Pledger, M. & Casswell, S. (2003). Ecstacy use in New Zealand: Findings from the 1998 and 2001 national drug survey. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116. 383-393. [Full text, PDF] A147

Wilkins, C., Casswell, S., Moewaka Barnes, H. & Pledger, M. (2003). A pilot study of a computer-assisted cell-phone interview (CACI) methodology to survey respondents in households without telephones about alcohol use. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22. 221-225. [Abstract] A151

Wilkins, C. (2002). A 'demand side' estimate of the dollar value of the cannabis black market in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 21. 145-151. [Abstract] A137

Wilkins, C. (2002). Designer amphetamines in New Zealand: policy challenges and initiatives. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 19. 14-27. [Full text] A150

Wilkins, C. (2002). The cannabis black market and the case for the legislation of cannabis in New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 18. 31-43. [Full text] A139

Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K, and Casswell, S. (2002). The Effectiveness of Cannabis Eradication Operations in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review, 21. 369-374. [Abstract] A143

Wilkins, C., Casswell, S., Bhatta, K., Casswell, S. (2002). The emergence of amphetamine use in New Zealand: findings from the 1998 and 2001 National Drug Surveys. New Zealand Medical Journal, 115(1166). 256-263. [Full text] A142

Wilkins, C. (2001). A 'new institutional economics' approach to the reliability of street-level drug transactions. Contemporary Drug Problems, 28. 679-693. [Abstract] A136

Wilkins, C. (2001). Cannabis transactions and law reform. Agenda, 8. 321-331. [Full text, PDF] A132

Wilkins, C., Scrimgeour, F. (2000). Economics and the Legalisation of Drugs. Agenda, 7. 334-344. [Full text, PDF] A128

Books, book chapters and reports

Winstock, A. & Wilkins, C. (2011) 'Legal highs' - the challenge of psychoactive substances. International Drug Policy Consortium (IDPC) Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies, Nr. 16. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2184359.

Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2011). The seizure rate of cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand, 1998-2009. In T. Decorte, G. Potter & M. Bouchard (Eds.),World Wide Weed: Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and its Control. Ashgate.

Bouchard M, Wilkins C (2010) Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. In Bouchard M,  Wilkins C eds. Illegal Markets and the Economics of Organized Crime..  Routledge, London, pp.1-4. SB51

Wilkins C, Sheridan J. (2010). The 'P' problem in New Zealand. In Pates R & Riley D. (Eds) Interventions for Amphetamine Misuse (pp. 129-147). West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing. SB49 

SHORE and WHARIKI Reports

Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Wong, K., Rychert, M. Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand 2006-2014: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University.   IDMS 2014 Final Report.pdf (6,144 KB)

Wilkins, C., Jawalkar, P.,Moewaka Barnes, H., Parker, K., & Asiasiga, L. (2014). New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) - 2013 Report. Auckland: SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, Massey University. Download a copy of the report here.

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., Smart, B., Warne, C., & Jawalkar, S. (2012). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., Moewaka Barnes, H., Smart, B., Asiasiga, L., & Warne, C. (2012). New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) - 2011 Results. Auckland: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health, Massey University.

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., Smart, B., & Griffiths, R. (2011). Recent Trends in Illegal Drug Use in New Zealand, 2006-2010: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE), Massey University.

Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., Moewaka Barnes, H., Griffiths, R., Asiasiga, L., & Smart, B. (2010). New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) 2010 Report. Auckland: Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation & Te Ropu Whariki, SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University

Wilkins, C., Griffiths, R. & Sweetsur, P. (2010). Recent Trends in Illegal Drug Use in New Zealand, 2006-2009: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation, School of Public Health, Massey University.

Wilkins, C., Griffiths, R., & Sweetsur, P. (2009). Recent Trends in Illegal Drug Use in New Zealand, 2006-2008 - Findings from the 2006, 2007 and 2008 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Girling, M., Sweetsur, P. (2006). Findings from the combined modules of the 2006 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) - Final Report. Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Girling, M., Sweetsur, P., Huckle, T. & Huakau, J. (2006). Legal party pill use in New Zealand: Prevalence of use, availability, health harms and 'gateway effects' of benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluorophenylmethylpiperazine (TFMPP). June. Auckland: Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE), Massey University.

Wilkins, C., Girling, M., Sweetsur, P., Butler, R. (2005). Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Trends in New Zealand: Findings from the Cannabis Module of the 2005 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Girling, M., Sweetsur, P., Butler, R. (2005). Hallucinogens and Other Illicit Drug Trends in New Zealand 2005: Findings from the Hallucinogen Module of the 2005 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Girling, M., Sweetsur, P., Butler, R. (2005). Methamphetamine and Other Illicit Drug Trends in New Zealand 2005: Findings from the Methamphetamine Module of the 2005 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins C, Reilly J, Rose E, Roy D, Pledger M, Lee A (2004). The Socio-Economic Impact of Amphetamine Type Stimulants in New Zealand: Final Report. September. Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Pledger, M., Lee, A., Adams, R. and Rose, E. (2004). A Local Pilot of the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (NZ-ADAM) System. Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE) and Te Ropu Whariki, Massey University, Auckland.

Wilkins, C., Casswell, S., Bhatta, K., Pledger, M. (2002). Drug Use in New Zealand : National Surveys Comparison 1998 & 2001. Alcohol & Public Health Research Unit: University of Auckland. C18

Wilkins, C., Casswell, S., Bhatta, K., Pledger, M. (2002). Drug Use in New Zealand: National Surveys Comparison 1998 & 2001. Alcohol & Public Health Research Unit: University of Auckland. C18

 

Massey Contact CentreMon - Fri 8:30am to 5:00pm0800 MASSEY (+64 6 350 5701)TXT 5222contact@massey.ac.nzWeb chatMyMasseyStaffAlumniNewsMāori @ Massey