Action, Gesture and Symbol:
The Emergence of Language

Edited by ANDREW LOCK

Foreword by Jerome Bruner


Copyright  1978  by
ACADEMIC PRESS INC. (LONDON) LTD.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 78-52094
ISBN: 0-12-454050-3


Contributors

SUSAN R. BRAUNWALD 2416 Nottingham Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90027, U.S.A. ANNE LINDSAY CARTER P.O. Box 5073, Berkeley, California, 94705, U.S.A. ROGER A. CLARK Department of Psychology, Hull University, Hull HU6 7RX, England DEREK EDWARDS Department of Social Sciences, University of Loughborough, Loughborough LEll 3TU, Leicestershire, England HEIDI FELDMAN 3424 6th Avenue, San Diego, California 92103, U.S.A. LINDA FERRIER 77 Main Street, Jaffrey, New Hampshire 03452, U.S.A. LILA GLEITMAN University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Education, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, U.S.A. SUSAN GOLDIN-MEADOW Department of Education, University of Chicago, 5835 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, U.S.A. HILARY GRAY Derbyshire County Council, Educational Psychology Service, 16 St. Mary's Gate, Derby, England PATRICIA MARKS GREENFIELD Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, U.S.A. PENELOPE HUBLEY Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9TA, Scotland DAVID INGRAM Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T IW5, Canada KEITH LAIDLER Survival Anglia Ltd., Brook House, Park Lane, London WlY 4DX, England ANDREW LOCK Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LAI 4YF, England JOHN NEWSON Department of Psychology, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England ALICIA NOKONY Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T I W5, Canada FRANS X. PLOOIJ Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands M. P. M. RICHARDS Medical Psychology Unit, Old Cavendish Building, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RF, England M. M. SHIELDS University of London Institute of Education, Department of Child Development and Educational Psychology, 24 and 27 Woburn Square, London WC1, England JOHN SHOTTER Department of Psychology, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England COLWYN TREVARTHEN Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9TA, Scotland CATHY URWIN Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, England

Contents

Contributors v Foreword vii Preface ix Section 1: Editorial Introduction 1 The Emergence of Language ANDREW LOCK 3 Section 2: Theoretical Perspectives and a Case Study 2 The Biological and the Social M. P. M. RICHARDS 21 3 Dialogue and Development JOHN NEWSON 31 4 The Cultural Context of Communication Studies: Theoretical and methodological issues JOHN SHOTTER 43 5 The Development of Communication between Blind Infants and their Parents CATHY URWIN 79 Section 3: The Evolutionary Background 6 Some Basic Traits of Language in Wild Chimpanzees? FRANS X. PLOOIJ 111 7 Language in the Orang-utan KEITH LAIDLER 133 Section 4: Communicutive Actions and the Establishment of Gestures 8 Learning to Take an Object from the Mother HILARY GRAY 159 9 Secondary Intersubjectivity: Confidence, confiding and acts of meaning in the first year COLWYN TREVARTHEN and PENELOPE HUBLEY 183 10 The Transition from Action to Gesture ROGER A. CLARK 231 Section 5: From Gesture to Symbol 11 Sensori-motor Intelligence and Language Development DAVID INGRAM 261 12 Word and Gesture Usage by an Indian Child ALICIA NOKONY 291 13 From Sensori-motor Vocalizations to Words: A case study of the evolution of attention- directing communication in the year ANNE LINDSAY CARTER 309 14 Beyond Herodotus: The creation of language by linguistically deprived deaf children HEIDI FELDMAN, SUSAN GOLDIN-MEADOW and LILA GLEITMAN 351 15 Structural Parallels between Language and Action in Development PATRICIA MARKS GREENFIELD 415 Section 6: Symbols and Society 16 Social Relations and Early Language DEREK EDWARDS 449 17 Word, Context and Imitation LINDA FERRIER 471 18 Context, Word and Meaning: Towards a communicational analysis of lexical acquisition SUSAN R. BRAUNWALD 485 19 The Child as Psychologist: Construing the social world M. M. SHIELDS 529 References 557 Index 583