Therapy as Social Construction

Edited by SHEILA McNAMEE and

1992 . SAGE Publications . London . Newbury Park . New Delhi

Introduction and editorial arrangement
Sheila McNamee and Kenneth J. Gergen 1992

	Chaptcr 1	Lynn Hoffman  1992
	Chaptcr 2	Harlene Anderson and
			Harold Goolishian  1992
	Chapter 3	Laura Fruggeri  1992
	Chapter 4	Tom Andersen  1992
	Chaptcr 5	William D. Lax  1992
	Chapter 6	Gianfranco Cecchin  1992
	Chapter 7	David Epston, Michael White and
			Kevin Murray  1992
	Chapter 8	Karl Tomm  1992
	Chapter 9	William Hudson O'Hanlon  1992
	Chapter 10	Annibal Coelho de Amorim and
			Fatima Goncalves Cavalcante  1992
	Chapter 11	Kenneth J. Gergen and
			John Kaye  1992
	Chapter 12	Sheila McNamee  1992
	Chapter 13	Jay S. Efran and
			Leslie E. Clarfield  1992

ISBN 0-8039-8302-6 ISBN 0-8039-8303-4 pbk


Notes on the Contributors					ix 
Introduction							1

A Reflexive Stance for Family Therapy 7 Lynn Hoffman 2 The Client is the Expert: 25 A Not-Knowing Approach to Therapy Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian 3 Therapeutic Process as the Social 40 Construction of Change Laura Fruggeri
4 Reflections on Reflecting with Families 54 Tom Andersen 5 Postmodern Thinking in a Clinical Practice 69 William D. Lax 6 Constructing Therapeutic Possibilities 86 Gianfranco Cecchin 7 A Proposal for a Re-authoring Therapy: 96 Rose's Revisioning of her Life and a Commentary David Epston, Michael White and Kevin Murray
8 Therapeutic Distinctions in an On-going Therapy 116 Karl, Cynthia, Andrew and Vanessa 9 History Becomes Her Story: Collaborative Solution- 136 Oriented Therapy of the After-Effects of Sexual Abuse William Hudson O Hanlon 10 Narrations of the Self: 149 Video Production in a Marginalized Subculture Annibal Coelho de Amorim and Fatima Concalves Cavalcante
11 Beyond Narrative in the Negotiation 166 of Therapeutic Meaning Kenneth J. Gergen and John Kaye 12 Reconstructing Identity: 186 the Communal Construction of Crisis Sheila McNamee 13 Constructionist Therapy: Sense and Nonsense 200 Jay S. Efran and Leslie E. Clarfield Index 218

Notes on the Contributors

Tom Andersen is a former general practitioner and is currently employed as a psychiatrist. He is also Professor of Social Psychiatry at the University of Troms Medical School. He is best known for his innovative 'reflecting position' and is editor of The Reflecting Team (1991). Harlene Anderson, Director of the Houston Galveston Institute, is on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies and Human Systems: the Journal of Systemic Consultation and Management. She has authored and co-authored numerous professional publications and, along with Harold Goolishian, has a forthcoming book, A Collaborative Language Systems Approach to Psychotherapy (Basic Books). Fatima Goncalves Cavalcante is a Brazilian gestalt psychologist. She has coordinated, with Dr Amorim, an art therapy group activity which was the origin of her contribution to the present volume. She is currently working with in- and out-patients at the Neuropsychiatric Child Hospital of the Pedro II Psychiatric Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Gianfranco Cecchin is currently Co-Director of the Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia and is one of the co-founders of the Milan Model of Family Therapy. He is co-author of Paradox and Counterparadox (Aronson), Milan Systemic Therapy (Basic Books), and several articles on family therapy. Leslie E. Clarfield received an M.S. in psychology from Vanderbilt University and is currently completing her doctorate in clinical psychology at Temple University. Annibal Coelho de Amorim is a Brazilian neurologist and a gestalt psychologist. He has been involved for the past twelve years with mental health and rehabilitation practices in Rio de Janeiro. He is the former Vice-Director of the Childhood Neuropsychiatric Hospital of the National Mental Division/Health Ministry and is presently on staff at this hospital. His work combines the use of construchonist theory with video among adolescents. Jay S. Efran is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Psychological Services Center at Temple University in Philadelphia. He has served as Director of Clinical Training and is co-author of Language, Structure, and Change: Frameworks of Meaning in Psychotherapy (Norton, 1990). David Epston is Co-Director of the Family Therapy Centre in Auckland, New Zealand. He co-authored, with Michael White, Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends (1990) and Narrative, Contradiction, Experience, and Imagination (1992). His Collected Papers (1989) were published by Dulwich Centre Publications, Adelaide, South Australia. Laura Fruggeri teaches Social Psychology at the University of Parma and is a faculty member at the Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia. She is author of several articles and books on systemic thinking and the social constructionist approach applied to the analysis of interpersonal and social relationships. Kenneth J. Gergen is Professor of Psychology at Swarthmore College. He is the author of, among other works, The Saturated Self (Basic Books, 1991) and Toward a Transformation of Social Knowledge (Springer-Verlag, 1982). He is a central exponent of the social constructionist movement in modern psychology. Harold Goolishian was Director Emeritus of the Houston Galveston Institute. He was honored in 1991, just before his death, by the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy for his distinguished professional contributions to family therapy. He is the author of numerous articles, many in collaboration with Harlene Anderson. He was a pioneer in the fields of family and psychotherapy. Lynn Hoffman is author of several books including Foundations of Family Therapy (Basic Books, 1981) and, with Luigi Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchin, and Peggy Penn, Milan Systemic Family Therapy (Basic Books, 1987). She has also written numerous articles on systemic family therapy. John Kaye is Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Adelaide, South Australia where he is Coordinator of the Master in Applied Psychology Programme. With interests in the Fine Arts, Literature, Metapsychology, Narrative and Discourse Analysis, his teaching and research emerge from a post-foundational orientation to psychology. This orientation also informs his work as a psycho-therapist. William D. Lax is a Core Faculty member at Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire and Director of Training at Brattleboro Family Institute, Brattleboro, Vermont. He is interested in applying social constructionist thinking within both academic and clinical settings. Sheila McNamee is Associate Professor and Chair of Communication at the University of New Hampshire. She has published several articles exploring conceptualizations of research as social intervention. She has also written on social constructionist approaches to family therapy. Kevin Murray specializes in the area of life construction. His Ph.D. thesis at the Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne was on 'Life as Fiction.' He is editor of The Judgment of Paris: Recent French Thought in a Local Context (Allen & Unwin, 1991). William Hudson O'Hanlon has authored or co-authored several books and travels internationally to teach psychotherapy seminars. He has a private practice at the Hudson Center for Brief Therapy in Omaha, Nebraska and is an Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Karl Tomm is a psychiatrist and family therapist who teaches at the University of Calgary. He has a strong interest in postmodernist theoretical developments that have heuristic potential for the clinical process of interventive interviewing. He has published several articles on this topic in Family Process. Michael White is Co-Director of the Dulwich Centre in Adelaide, South Australia. His conceptualization of 'externalizing the problem' in therapy has gained him much recognition. He has written several articles on this topic and is co-author, with David Epston, of Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends (1990) and Narrative, Contradiction, Experience, and Imagination (1992).