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What was it really like to fight in the First World War?
Testimonies from more than 2000 letters, diaries and journal entries of New Zealand soldiers who served in the Great War (1914-1918) provide vivid, moving and horrifying written accounts in a new book by Massey University Professor of War Studies Glyn Harper.
Johnny Enzed: The New Zealand soldier in the First World War 1914-1918 takes the reader deep into the territory and terrors of life at war: the gas attacks, rats in the trenches and the putrid stench of rotting bodies.
The entries also reveal the depth and strength of the camaraderie between soldiers as they faced unimaginable physical hardships, danger and suffering on the battlefronts of the Middle East, the Western Front in Europe and in Gallipoli, Turkey.
First hand accounts expose the truth of soldiers’ lives as they experienced the war, Professor Harper says, enabling readers to gain a new understanding of what it was like for the ordinary soldier a century ago.
In one of the many poignant, revealing entries Lieutenant Harry Kenrick, who was with the3rd Otago Battalion in the4th Brigade, describes his thoughts at the October Battle of Broodseinde in Belgium:
My prayer and that of some others was; ‘Please God, when the shell with my number on it comes my way I either get a ‘blighty’ and be able to walk out or be killed outright – but not wounded and left to die in the mud.’ Not a very cheerful sentiment for a boy who had just turned 19 years of age.”
The 720-page hardback book with 150 photos (Exisle Publishing), will be launched at a special event in Palmerston North on Friday, August 7 to commemorate the legendary Gallipoli battle of Chunuk Bair.
The Johnny Enzed of the title is a term New Zealand soldiers of the time would have used to call themselves, says Professor Harper.
“There were many of these but surprisingly, ‘Kiwi’ was seldom used. The term ‘Enzed’ or ‘Enzeder’ was in common use and could not be applied to – or taken by – Australians, like the terms ‘Anzac’ or ‘Digger’. ‘Johnny’, meaning fellow or person, had been frequently used in New Zealand from the mid-nineteenth century,” he says.
Professor Harper, the author of 20 books including nine for children on New Zealand’s war history, says the experience of reading soldiers’ diaries and letters in order to edit extracts for the book was deeply affecting, despite the years he has spent researching New Zealand’s military history.
“There were many things that surprised me in my research for this book. The quality of the soldiers’ writing has always amazed me. They were quite a literate group. Their use of language was inventive and unique too and I have a section on this in the book.
“It defined them too as being able to ‘sling the bat’ (speak the language) and marked you as being part of the soldier community. The importance of communal singing was interesting and it surprised me to learn that at one time the New Zealand Division had five different concert groups performing shows near the front line. The emphasis soldiers placed on food, drink and sex was to be expected, but it was gratifying to find candid accounts of this in their diaries and sometimes even in their letters back home.”
More than 100,000 men and women embarked for overseas service during the First World War, and almost 60,000 of them became casualties.
The book’s publication and Chunuk Bair commemoration are part of the Centenary History of New Zealand and the First World War project, a collaboration between Massey University, the Ministry of Culture and Heritage, the New Zealand Defence Force and the Returned and Services’ Association.
Professor Harper is Massey Project Manager for the Centenary History of 13 volumes of the New Zealand involvement in the First World War. Johnny Enzed: The New Zealand Soldier in the First World War 1914 – 1918 is one of five produced by Massey historians.
Other extracts from the book in soldiers’ own words:
“The most afraid I ever felt was the night before it all began. I imagined every horrible fate that could happen to me. Sleep was impossible. I tried to get away on my own, but that was impossible too. I heard someone say, ‘I didn't think Rotherham would turn yellow. But look at him.’”
- (George Rotherham, Auckland Battalion, who had a crisis of confidence on the eve of landing at Anzac Cove, imagining ‘all the horrible things that could happen to him’. When the moment came, he was the first Johnny Enzed to climb into the landing boats).
“God in heaven what slaughter there has been since last Friday night…what hell we went through from then till last night no one that did not see it can ever imagine even on a small scale. Men piled dead all around one, hands, legs, heads, bodies & equipment and rifles flying in the air, slung there by high explosive shells. How a man came out of it God alone knows.”
- (Murdoch Finlayson, one of the few Auckland Mounted Rifles’ survivors of Chunuk Bair).
"We crossed a field where dead men were lying, pathetic bundles of khaki. They had been caught by machine gun fire, and lay as they fell. I had never seen a dead person before. I just looked at them out of the corner of my eye as I went past."
- (Eric Hames, at Bapaume, where 2373 Johnny Enzeds were killed between 21 August and 3 September, 1918)
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Created: 02/08/2015 | Last updated: 05/08/2015
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