Great bindweed

 

Botanical name: Calystegia sylvatica

Family name: Convolvulaceae

Overview

Great bindweed plants This clambering weed with long vines has been known as greater bindweed in the past, and also incorrectly called convolvulus.  It is very commonly found in home gardens, roadsides and waste areas, with the distinctive large white trumpet-shaped leaves making it easy to spot from a distance.  Great bindweed has been particularly troublesome recently where attempts have been made to establish native plants into waste area, especially along streams as part of creating riparian strips to protect waterways, as it often grows over the newly planted shrubs and smothers them, blocking out light (see photo to the side).  It is a deciduous species, which means it dies back in winter to the extensive rhizome system underground.  So spraying out an area in winter when it is dormant means the weed will be poorly controlled, then it comes back again in spring.

Distinguishing features

Great bindweed leaf shapes and flowers The stems of great bindweed can reach many metres in length, twining around surrounding vegetation for support.  It has heart-shaped leaves up to 18 cm long and the white flowers can get up to 8 cm in diameter.  Each flower produces only one or two large seeds, but these seeds can form new plants should the weed be successfully killed off with herbicides.  It can be confused with other weeds.  Pink bindweed (Calystegia sepium) looks much the same except the flowers are mainly pinkish with some whiteness.  Many bindweed plants with pink flowers are a cross between great bindweed and pink bindweed, and have flowers that are paler pink with more whiteness.  The bracts at the base of the flower in great bindweed overlap more than in pink bindweed.  Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) also has white, trumpet-shaped flowers, but these tend to be smaller than great bindweed (about 3 cm diameter), and the leaves are slightly different in shape and smaller too (usually less than 4 cm in length).  Pink bindweed is native to New Zealand, and another couple of native bindweeds that look similar are shore bindweed (Calystegia soldanella) and New Zealand bindweed (Calystegia tuguriorum).  Shore bindweed is quite small and is mainly found by the sea, has pink flowers with white stripes, kidney-shaped leaves and no twining stems.  Likewise the white flowers of New Zealand bindweed and its leaves are smaller (less than 4 cm long) than those for great bindweed.

Control

Great bindweed smothering shrubs Because of its extensive underground rhizome system, good control of great bindweed will only be achieved if herbicide can be translocated sufficiently down into this system.  We have recently conducted and published research on the control of great bindweed.  As the weed sends sugars from its leaves down into the rhizomes in autumn ready for winter dormancy, we feel that the best time to spray great bindweed foliage initially is in autumn.  Of the various herbicides we used to control this weed, we found the best products were a 2,4-D/dicamba mix (eg Banvine, Yates Woody Weedkiller) and a mixture of triclopyr, picloram and aminopyralid (Tordon Brushkiller XT).  We generally found glyphosate, metsulfuron and clopyralid to be much less effective, though aminopyralid (T-Max) showed some activity.  Herbicide treatments made in autumn didn’t give total control with any of the herbicides, but the plants made a full recovery if left until the following autumn to respray, so we consider the best strategy is to spray once in autumn, then follow up on any regrowth in spring.  As all of the herbicides tested will be damaging to young shrubs in riparian plantings, we only sprayed 90% of each vine to simulate not spraying parts covering native plants we wanted to keep alive.  If all of the plants had been sprayed, perhaps a higher level of control would have been achieved.

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