Journal articles

These papers present the results of the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement Study.


Allen, J., Alpass, F.M., Szabó, Á., Stephens, C.V. (2021). Impact of Flexible Work Arrangements on Key Challenges to Work Engagement Among Older Workers, Work, Aging and Retirement, 7(4), 404–417. (Free access link)

Allen, J., Uekusa, S., Alpass, F. (2021) Longitudinal cohort study of depression and anxiety among older informal caregivers following the initial COVID-19 pandemic response in New Zealand. Journal of Aging and Health.

Bennetts, R. & Taylor, J.E. (2021): Health and Quality of Life Outcomes of Driving Cessation for Older People are More Complex Than We Thought. Clinical Gerontologist.

Koreshi, S.Y., Alpass, F. (2021). Predictors of work ability and quality of life in older New Zealanders with and without an arthritis diagnosis. Australasian Journal on Ageing.

McLeod, G., Horwood, L., Darlow, B., Boden, J., Martin, J., Spittlehouse, J.K., Carter, F., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Bell, C., Douglas, K., Henderson, J., Goulden, M., McIntosh, V., Woodward, L., Rucklidge, J., Kuijer, R., Allen J., Vierck, E. (2021). Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies.

Myllyntausta, S., Gibson, R, Salo, P., Allen, J., Gander, P., Alpass F.M., Stephens. C.V. (in press) Daytime fatigue as a predictor for subsequent retirement among older New Zealand workers. Sleep Health.

Noone, J., Earl, J., Stephens, C., Rafalskid, J., Allen, J., Alpass, F., & Topa, G. (2021) An application of the Resource-Based Dynamic Process model in the context of retirement planning. Work, Aging and Retirement

Spijker, JJA., Alpass, FM., Allen, J., & Stephens, C. (2021). What factors enable mid-life carers to re-enter the labour market in New Zealand?. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 40(2), 154-161

Stephens, C., & Allen, J. (2021). Older people as active agents in their neighbourhood environments: Moving house can improve quality of life.. Gerontologist.

Stephens, C., & Breheny, M. (2021). Diverse Experiences among Older Adults in Aotearoa/New Zealand during COVID-19 lockdown: A qualitative study. Australasian Journal on Ageing.

Szabó, Á., Hyde, M. & Towers, A. (2021) One slope does not fit all: longitudinal trajectories of quality of life in older adulthood. Quality of Life Research.

Szabó, Á, Towers, A, Newcombe, D, Sheridan, J. (2021). Alcohol use trajectories across the life course: Influences of childhood predictors and consequences for late-life health. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 224:108713

Tkatch, M.T., Towers, A.J., Keller, H.H., Wham, C.A. (2021). Nutrition risk prevalence and associated health and social risk factors in Māori and non-Māori: Results from the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement Study. Australasian Journal on Ageing

Yeung, P., & Breheny, M. (2021). Quality of life among older people with a disability: the role of purpose in life and capabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation. 43(2), 181-191


Allen J, Alpass FM (2020). Trajectories of material living standards, physical health and mental health under a universal pension. J Epidemiol Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213199

Allen, J., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2020). Dataset comprising indices of Healthy Ageing among older New Zealand adults from the 2016-2018 waves of the Health, Work and Retirement longitudinal survey. Data in Brief, 105817.

Aminisani, N., Stephens, C., Allen, J., Alpass, F., & Shamshirgaran, SM. (2020). Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with multimorbidity in New Zealand. Epidemiol Health. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2020001

Breheny, M., Horrell, B., & Stephens, C. (2020). Caring for older people: Relational narratives of attentiveness, commitment and acceptance. International Journal of Care and Caring. 4(2), 201-214

Hempel, M., Breheny, M., Yeung, P., Alpass, F. & Stevenson, B. (2020). The relationship between childhood circumstances and late life physical and mental health: The role of adult socioeconomic status. Research on Aging.

Shamshirgaran, SM., Stephens, C., Alpass, F., & Aminisani, N. (2020). Longitudinal assessment of the health-related quality of life among older people with diabetes: Results of a nationwide study in New Zealand. BMC Endocrine Disorders. 20(1)

Stephens, C., Allen, J., Keating, N., Szabó, Á., & Alpass, F. (2020). Neighborhood environments and intrinsic capacity interact to affect the health-related quality of life of older people in New Zealand. Maturitas, 139, 1-5.

Stephens, C., Szabo, A. & Breheny, M. (2020). Life course socioeconomic predictors of healthy ageing in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Differences by Māori ethnicity and gender. Ageing & Society. DOI:

Yeung, P., Severinsen, C., Good, G., & O’Donoghue, K. (2020). Social environment and quality of life among older people with diabetes and multiple chronic illnesses in New Zealand: Intermediary effects of psychosocial support and constraints. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-13. 10.1080/09638288.2020.1783375


Stephens, C., Szabó, Á., Allen, J., & Alpass, F. (2019). Livable Environments and the Quality of Life of Older People: An Ecological Perspective. The Gerontologist, 59(4), 675–685. doi:

Szabó, Á., Neely, E., & Stephens, C. (2019). The psychosocial benefits of providing non-kin childcare in older adults: A longitudinal study with older New Zealanders. Journal of Health Psychology.

Szabó, Á., Towers, A., Sheridan, J., & Newcombe, D. (2019). Ten-Year Trajectories of Alcohol Consumption in Older Adult New Zealanders. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbz143

Towers, A., McMenamin, J., Newcombe, D., Janie, S., & White, G. (2019). Older New Zealanders: addressing an emerging population of hazardous drinkers. The New Zealand medical journal, 132.

Yeung, P., Allen, J., Godfrey, H. K., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2019). Risk and protective factors for wellbeing in older veterans in New Zealand. Aging Ment Health, 23(8), 992-999. doi:10.1080/13607863.2018.1471584

Yeung, P., & Breheny, M. (2019). Quality of life among older people with a disability: the role of purpose in life and capabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-11. doi:10.1080/09638288.2019.1620875


Allen, J., Alpass, F. M., & Stephens, C. V. (2018). The sensitivity of the MOS SF-12 and PROMIS® global summary scores to adverse health events in an older cohort. Quality of Life Research, 27(8), 2207-2215. doi:10.1007/s11136-018-1871-y

Allen, J., Brown, L. M., Alpass, F. M., & Stephens, C. V. (2018). Longitudinal health and disaster impact in older New Zealand adults in the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake series. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 1-18. doi:10.1080/01634372.2018.1494073

Neville, S., Adams, J., Montayre, J., Larmer, P., Garrett, N., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2018). Loneliness in Men 60 Years and Over: The Association With Purpose in Life. American Journal of Men's Health, 0(0), 1557988318758807. doi:10.1177/1557988318758807

Stephens, C., Szabó, Á., Allen, J., & Alpass, F. (2018). A Capabilities Approach to Unequal Trajectories of Healthy Aging: The Importance of the Environment. Journal of Aging and Health. doi:10.1177/0898264318779474 Szabo, A., Allen, J., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2018). Longitudinal Trajectories of Quality of Life and Depression by Housing Tenure Status. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 73, e165–e174. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbx028

Szabo, A., Allen, J., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2018). Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship Between Purposes of Internet Use and Well-being Among Older Adults. The Gerontologist, gny036-gny036. doi:10.1093/geront/gny036

Szabó, Á., Allen, J., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2018). Is retirement associated with physical health benefits? A longitudinal investigation with older New Zealanders. Age and Ageing, 48(2), 267-272. doi:10.1093/ageing/afy176

Szabo, A., Stephens, C., Allen, J., & Alpass, F. (2018). Construct Validation of Wenger’s Support Network Typology. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 73(7), 1244–1249. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbw126

Towers, A., Szabó, Á., Newcombe, D. A. L., Sheridan, J., Moore, A. A., Hyde, M., . . . Savage, C. L. (2018). Hazardous Drinking Prevalence and Correlates in Older New Zealanders: A Comparison of the AUDIT-C and the CARET. Journal of Aging and Health, 0(0), 0898264318794108. doi:10.1177/0898264318794108


Alpass, F., Keeling, S., Allen, J., Stevenson, B., & Stephens, C. (2017). Reconciling Work and Caregiving Responsibilities among Older Workers in New Zealand. J Cross Cult Gerontol. doi:10.1007/s10823-017-9327-3

Alpass, F., Szabo, A., Allen, J., & Stephens, C. (2017). Health effects of informal caring in New Zealand: longitudinal findings from the Health, Work and Retirement study. International Journal of Care and Caring, 1(3), 309-329. doi:10.1332/239788217X15040798472015

Fekete, M., Szabo, A., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2017). Older New Zealanders in caregiving roles: Psychological functioning of caregivers of people living with dementia. Dementia (London), 1471301217725897. doi:10.1177/1471301217725897

Hempel, M. E., Taylor, J. E., Connolly, M. J., Alpass, F. M., & Stephens, C. V. (2017). Scared behind the wheel: what impact does driving anxiety have on the health and well-being of young older adults? International Psychogeriatrics, 29(6), 1027-1034. doi:10.1017/S1041610216002271

Herbert, S., Forster, M., McCreanor, T., & Stephens, C. (2017). The social context of alcohol use among Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Reflections of life experiences of alcohol use by older Māori. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 12(1), 57-74.

Herbert, S., Stephens, C., & Forster, M. (2017). Socially based trajectories of alcohol use among indigenous Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Critical Public Health, 1-10. doi:10.1080/09581596.2017.1378424

Li, J., Herr, R. M., Allen, J., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2017). Validating the short measure of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire in older workers in the context of New Zealand. Journal of Occupational Health, 59(6), 495-505. doi:10.1539/joh.17-0044-OA

Stephens, C. (2017). From success to capability for healthy ageing: shifting the lens to include all older people. Critical Public Health, 27(4), 490-498. doi:10.1080/09581596.2016.1192583

Szabo, A., Allen, J., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2017). Loneliness, socio-economic status and quality of life in old age: the moderating role of housing tenure. Ageing and Society, 1-24. doi:10.1017/S0144686X17001362

Towers, A., Stevenson, B., Breheny, M., & Allen, J. (2017). Health, Work, and Retirement Longitudinal Study. In N. A. Pachana (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geropsychology (pp. 1025-1033). Singapore: Springer Singapore.


Breheny, M., Stephens, C., Henricksen, A., Stevenson, B., Carter, K., & Alpass, F. (2016). Measuring living standards of older people using Sen's Capability Approach: development and validation of the LSCAPE-24 (Living Standards Capabilities for Elders) and LSCAPE-6. Ageing and Society, 36(2), 307-332. doi:10.1017/S0144686X14001160

Butcher, E., & Breheny, M. (2016). Dependence on place: A source of autonomy in later life for older Māori. Journal of Aging Studies, 37(Supplement C), 48-58. doi:

Towers, A., Philipp, M., Dulin, P., & Allen, J. (2016). The "Health Benefits" of Moderate Drinking in Older Adults may be Better Explained by Socioeconomic Status. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbw152

Yeung, P., & Breheny, M. (2016). Using the capability approach to understand the determinants of subjective well-being among community-dwelling older people in New Zealand. Age and Ageing, 45(2), 292-298. doi:10.1093/ageing/afw002


Callow, L., Alpass, F., Leathem, J., & Stephens, C. (2015). Normative data for older New Zealanders on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 44(3), 29-41.

Gibson, R., Gander, P., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2015). Effect of caregiving status on the sleep of older New Zealanders. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 34(3), 155-159. doi:10.1111/ajag.12161

Herbert, S., & Stephens, C. (2015). Alcohol Use and Older Māori in Aotearoa. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 14(3), 251-269. doi:10.1080/15332640.2014.993786

La Grow, S. J., Towers, A., Yeung, P., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2015). The Relationship between Loneliness and Perceived Quality of Life among Older Persons with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 109(6), 487-499.

Stephens, C., Breheny, M., & Mansvelt, J. (2015a). Volunteering as reciprocity: Beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age. Journal of Aging Studies, 33(Supplement C), 22-27. doi:

Stephens, C., Breheny, M., & Mansvelt, J. (2015b). Healthy ageing from the perspective of older people: A capability approach to resilience. Psychology & Health, 30(6), 715-731. doi:10.1080/08870446.2014.904862

Towers, A., Yeung, P., Stevenson, B., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2015). Quality of life in indigenous and non-indigenous older adults: assessing the CASP-12 factor structure and identifying a brief CASP-3. Quality of Life Research, 24(1), 193-203. doi:10.1007/s11136-014-0756-y

Yeung, P., Towers, A., La Grow, S., Philipp, M., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2015). Mobility, satisfaction with functional capacity and perceived quality of life (PQOL) in older persons with self-reported visual impairment: the pathway between ability to get around and PQOL. Disability and Rehabilitation, 37(2), 113-120. doi:10.3109/09638288.2014.910559


Alpass, F. (2014). Editorial: Reconciling work and eldercare. Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, 5(1), 25262. doi:10.3402/vgi.v5.25262

Lotoala, F., Breheny, M., Alpass, F., & Henricksen, A. (2014). Health and wellbeing of older Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The New Zealand medical journal, 127(1407), 27-39.

Stephens, C., Noone, J., & Alpass, F. (2014). Upstream and downstream correlates of older people's engagement in social networks: what are their effects on health over time? Int J Aging Hum Dev, 78(2), 149-169. doi:10.2190/AG.78.2.d

Stephens, C., Spicer, J., Budge, C., Stevenson, B., & Alpass, F. (2014). Accounting for differences in cognitive health between older adults in New Zealand and the USA. International Psychogeriatrics, 27(4), 591-600. doi:10.1017/S1041610214002579

Tuohy, R., Stephens, C., & Johnston, D. (2014). Older adults׳ disaster preparedness in the context of the September 2010–December 2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 9(Supplement C), 194-203. doi:


Alpass, F., Pond, R., Stephens, C., Stevenson, B., Keeling, S., & Towers, A. (2013). The Influence of Ethnicity and Gender on Caregiver Health in Older New Zealanders. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 68(5), 783-793. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbt060

Breheny, M., Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Stevenson, B., Carter, K., & Yeung, P. (2013). Development and Validation of a Measure of Living Standards for Older People. Social Indicators Research, 114(3), 1035-1048. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0188-4

Breheny, M., Stephens, C., & Spilsbury, L. (2013). Involvement without interference: How grandparents negotiate intergenerational expectations in relationships with grandchildren. Journal of Family Studies, 19(2), 174-184. doi:10.5172/jfs.2013.19.2.174

Henricksen, A., & Stephens, C. (2013). The Happiness-Enhancing Activities and Positive Practices Inventory (HAPPI): Development and Validation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 81-98. doi:10.1007/s10902-011-9317-z

La Grow, S., Yeung, P., Towers, A., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2013). The Impact of Mobility on Quality of Life Among Older Persons. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(5), 723-736. doi:10.1177/0898264313490198

Mansvelt, J., Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2013). Pursuing security: economic resources and the ontological security of older New Zealanders. Ageing and Society, 34(10), 1666-1687. doi:10.1017/S0144686X13000342


Breheny, M. (2012). "we've had our lives, we've had our lives": A poetic representation of ageing. Creative Approaches to Research, 5(2), 156-170.

Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2012). Negotiating a moral identity in the context of later life care. J Aging Stud, 26(4), 438-447. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2012.06.003

Dulin, P. L., Gavala, J., Stephens, C., Kostick, M., & McDonald, J. (2012). Volunteering predicts happiness among older Maori and non-Maori in the New Zealand health, work, and retirement longitudinal study. Aging Ment Health, 16(5), 617-624. doi:10.1080/13607863.2011.641518

La Grow, S., Neville, S., Alpass, F., & Rodgers, V. (2012). Loneliness and self-reported health among older persons in New Zealand. Australas J Ageing, 31(2), 121-123. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6612.2011.00568.x

Tuohy, R., & Stephens, C. (2012). Older adults' narratives about a flood disaster: Resilience, coherence, and personal identity. Journal of Aging Studies, 26(1), 26-34. doi:


Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2011). The Bonds and Burdens of Family Life: Using Narrative Analysis to Understand Difficult Relationships. Narrative Works, 1(2), 34-51.

Dulin, P. L., Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Hill, R. D., & Stevenson, B. (2011). The impact of socio-contextual, physical and lifestyle variables on measures of physical and psychological wellbeing among Māori and non-Māori: the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement Study. Ageing and Society, 31(8), 1406-1424. doi:10.1017/S0144686X10001479

La Grow, S., Alpass, F., Stephens, C., & Towers, A. (2011). Factors affecting perceived quality of life of older persons with self-reported visual disability. Qual Life Res, 20(3), 407-413. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9758-6

La Grow, S., Yeung, P., Towers, A., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2011). Determinants of the overall quality of life of older persons who have difficulty seeing: The importance of the ability to get around. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 105(10), 720-730.

Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Towers, A., Noone, J., & Stevenson, B. (2011). The effects of socioeconomic inequalities of working life on health: implications for an ageing population. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 6(1-2), 73-85. doi:10.1080/1177083X.2011.614264

Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Towers, A., & Stevenson, B. (2011). The Effects of Types of Social Networks, Perceived Social Support, and Loneliness on the Health of Older People:Accounting for the Social Context. Journal of Aging and Health, 23(6), 887-911. doi:10.1177/0898264311400189

Taylor, J. E., Alpass, F., Stephens, C., & Towers, A. (2011). Driving anxiety and fear in young older adults in New Zealand. Age and Ageing, 40(1), 62-66. doi:10.1093/ageing/afq154

Towers, A., Stephens, C., Dulin, P., Kostick, M., Noone, J., & Alpass, F. (2011). Estimating older hazardous and binge drinking prevalence using AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 thresholds specific to older adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117(2-3), 211-218. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.008

Tuohy, R., & Stephens, C. (2011). Exploring older adults' personal and social vulnerability in a disaster. International Journal of Emergency Management, 8(1), 60-73. doi:10.1504/ijem.2011.040399

Yeung, P., La Grow, S., Towers, A., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2011). The centrality of O&M in rehabilitation programs designed to enhance quality of life: A structural equation modelling. International Journal of Orientation and Mobility, 4(1), 10.


Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2010). Ageing in a material world. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 41-48.

Henricksen, A., & Stephens, C. (2010). An Exploration of the Happiness-enhancing Activities Engaged in by Older Adults. Ageing International, 35(4), 311-326. doi:10.1007/s12126-010-9059-y

Noone, J., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2010). Do Men and Women Differ in Their Retirement Planning? Testing a Theoretical Model of Gendered Pathways to Retirement Preparation. Research on Aging, 32(6), 715-738. doi:10.1177/0164027510383531

Noone, J. H., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2010). The process of Retirement Planning Scale (PRePS): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 22(3), 520-531. doi:10.1037/a0019512

Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Baars, M., Towers, A., & Stevenson, B. (2010). SF-36v2 norms for New Zealanders aged 55-69 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327), 47-57.

Stephens, C., Alpass, F., & Towers, A. (2010). Economic hardship among older people in New Zealand: The effects of low living standards on social support, loneliness, and mental health. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 49-55.

Stephens, C., & Flick, U. (2010). Health and Ageing —Challenges for Health Psychology Research. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(5), 643-648. doi:10.1177/1359105310368178


Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2009). ‘I sort of pay back in my own little way’: managing independence and social connectedness through reciprocity. Ageing and Society, 29(8), 1295-1313. doi:10.1017/S0144686X09990134

La Grow, S., Alpass, F., & Stephens, C. (2009). Economic Standing, Health Status and Social Isolation among Visually Impaired Persons Aged 55 to 70 in New Zealand. Journal of Optometry, 2(3), 155-158. doi:

Noone, J. H., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. M. (2009). Preretirement Planning and Well-Being in Later Life: A Prospective Study. Research on Aging, 31(3), 295-317. doi:10.1177/0164027508330718

Pond, R., Stephens, C., & Alpass, F. (2009). How health affects retirement decisions: three pathways taken by middle-older aged New Zealanders. Ageing and Society, 30(3), 527-545. doi:10.1017/S0144686X09990523

2007 and earlier

Alpass, F., Towers, A., Stephens, C., Fitzgerald, E., Stevenson, B., & Davey, J. (2007). Independence, Well-being, and Social Participation in an Aging Population. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1114(1), 241-250. doi:10.1196/annals.1396.009

Pachana, N. A., Alpass, F. M., Blakey, J. A., & Long, N. R. (2006). A comparison of the MMSE and the TICS-m in hearing-impaired older adults. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 25(2), 89-93. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6612.2006.00156.x