Associate Professor Carol Stewart staff profile picture

Contact details +6449793617

Associate Professor Carol Stewart PhD, B.Sc. (Hons)

Associate Professor

School of Health Sciences

My background is in environmental chemistry and environmental science, and over the years I have worked in diverse areas including oceanography, ecotoxicology and contaminated site assessment and management. In the past 15 years, I have worked in the natural hazards and disasters research space and have been based at the Joint Centre for Disaster Research (Massey University/GNS Science) where my research interests include volcanic ash hazard assessment; environmental, agricultural and health impacts of volcanic ash and public and environmental health impacts of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

Internationally, I am a Deputy Director of the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (www.ivhhn.org) and am a core member of the Volcanic Ash Impacts Working Group, a commission of IAVCEI. Within New Zealand, I am a member of the New Zealand Volcanic Science Advisory Panel and coordinator of the Health Impacts Subgroup of the NZVSAP. I served three years on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Applied Volcanology, and was an invited speaker at the 15th World Congress on Environmental Health 2018. I am a current member of the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine Oceania Chapter. 

I am particularly interested in developing the field of environmental health consequences of natural hazards and disasters within the School of Health Sciences. This year I have had the privilege of contributing to the MFAT-funded scientific response, led by GNS Science, to the ongoing eruptions of Ambae volcano, Vanuatu. In 2018 I visited the islands of Ambae, Maewo and Pentecost to carry out air and water quality monitoring to inform the decision-making of Vanuatu government agencies. In 2019, I obtained funding from the Multi-Agency Research Network (MARN), hosted by Massey University's Centre for Defence and Security Studies, to carry out a further study of the large-scale evaucations of Ambae Island in 2018. We made a field visit to Vanuatu in February 2020, and completed our report in late 2020. It is now published on Prevention Web, the platform of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. 

 

I am a disaster environmental health specialist. My research interests include environmental health consequences of natural hazards and disasters; volcanic hazard impacts; volcanic ash chemistry; environmental, agricultural and health impacts of volcanic eruptions; developing volcanic ash hazard assessment methods; vulnerability of water and wastewater infrastructure to natural hazards and disasters. Internationally, I am a Deputy Director of the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (www.ivhhn.org); a core member of the Volcanic Ash Impacts Working Group, a commission of IAVCEI, and a member of the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine Oceania Chapter. 

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Professional

Contact details

  • Ph: +64 4 801 5799 ext 63617
    Location: 3C11, Block 3
    Campus: Wellington Campus

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy - University of Canterbury (1990)
  • Bachelor of Science with First Class Honours - University of Canterbury (1985)

Prizes and Awards

  • Joint Centre for Disaster Research won the 2019 Massey Team Research Medal - Massey University (2020)

Research Expertise

Research Interests

My research interests include environmental health consequences of natural hazards and disasters; volcanic hazard impacts; volcanic ash chemistry; environmental, agricultural and health impacts of volcanic eruptions; developing volcanic ash hazard assessment methods; vulnerability of water and wastewater infrastructure to natural hazards and disasters. 

I also have a growing interest in the use of low-cost citizen science sensor technology and am in the process of setting up a network of low-cost air quality sensors with potential applications both in citizen science, and in rapid response to natural hazard events causing imapcts on air quality. I am affiliated with Crisis Lab, which is a new initiative within the Joint Centre for Disaster Research. 

Thematics

Health and Well-being

Area of Expertise

Field of research codes
Analytical Chemistry (030100): Chemical Science (030000):
Earth Sciences (040000):
Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (111705):
Environmental Sciences (050000):
Medical And Health Sciences (110000):
Natural Hazards (040604): Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience (040600):
Public Health and Health Services (111700):
Quality Assurance, Chemometrics, Traceability and Metrological Chemistry (030106)

Keywords

Environmental chemistry

Environmental health

Volcanic hazards

Water quality

Air quality

Water supply

Wastewater

Research Outputs

Journal

Brenin, M., Stewart, C., Johnston, D., Mowll, R., Horswell, J., & Wotherspoon, L. (2021). Emergency sanitation challenges and oppportunities following a large Wellington Fault earthquake scenario: practice update from November 2019 workshop. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies.
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Webb, E., Stewart, C., Sami, E., Kelsey, S., Fairbairn Dunlop, P., & Dennison, E. (2021). Variability of naturally occurring fluoride in diverse community drinking-water sources, Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Tomasek, I., Damby, D., Stewart, C., Horwell, CJ., Plumlee, G., Delmelle, P., . . . Leermakers, M. (2021). Development of a simulated lung fluid leaching method to assess the release of potentially toxic elements from volcanic ash. Chemosphere.
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Cuthbertson, J., Stewart, C., Lyon, A., Burns, P., & Telepo, T. (2020). Health Impacts of Volcanic Activity in Oceania - CORRIGENDUM. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 35(5), 592-594 Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine/article/health-impacts-of-volcanic-activity-in-oceania-corrigendum/A65C948496A06CE580B8F8177A9CD2DD
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Cuthbertson, J., Stewart, C., Lyon, A., Burns, P., & Telepo, T. (2020). Health Impacts of Volcanic Activity in Oceania. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 35(5), 574-578
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Damby, DE., Tomašek, I., Horwell, CJ., Plumlee, GS., Armienta, MA., . . . Morman, S. (2020). Assessment of leachable elements in volcanic ashfall: a review and evaluation of a standardized protocol for ash hazard characterization. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 392
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Hayes, JL., Wilson, TM., Stewart, C., Villarosa, G., Salgado, P., Beigt, D., . . . Leonard, GS. (2019). Tephra clean-up after the 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano, Chile: A quantitative geospatial assessment in four communities. Journal of Applied Volcanology. 8(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.Contributed to by: Stewart, C.
Squance, H., Johnston, D., Stewart, C., & Riley, C. (2018). An integrative review of the 2017 Port Hills fires' impacts on animals, their owners and first responders' encounters with the human-animal interface. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. 22(Port Hills Wildfire Special Issue), 97-108
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Riley, C., Stewart, C.
Blake, DM., Wilson, TM., & Stewart, C. (2018). Visibility in airborne volcanic ash: considerations for surface transportation using a laboratory-based method. Natural Hazards. 92(1), 381-413
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Bosshard-Stadlin, SA., Mattsson, HB., Stewart, C., & Reusser, E. (2017). Leaching of lava and tephra from the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (Tanzania): Remobilization of fluorine and other potentially toxic elements into surface waters of the Gregory Rift. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 332, 14-25
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Deligne, NI., Fitzgerald, RH., Blake, DM., Davies, AJ., Hayes, JL., Stewart, C., . . . Woods, R. (2017). Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach I: Development and application of a hypothetical eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 336, 192-208
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Craig, H., Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Outes, V., Villarosa, G., & Baxter, P. (2016). Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: An assessment of published damage and function thresholds. Journal of Applied Volcanology. 5(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Craig, HM., Gaw, S., Wilson, T., Villarosa, G., Outes, V., . . . Oze, C. (2016). Fate and agricultural consequences of leachable elements added to the environment from the 2011 Cordón Caulle tephra fall. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 327, 554-570
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Kim, ND., Johnston, DM., & Nayyerloo, M. (2016). Health hazards associated with consumption of roof-collected rainwater in urban areas in emergency situations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(10)
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Kim, N., Stewart, C.
Craig, H., Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Villarosa, G., Outes, V., Cronin, S., . . . Jenkins, S. (2016). Agricultural impact assessment and management after three widespread tephra falls in Patagonia, South America. Natural Hazards. 82(2), 1167-1229
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Genareau, K., Cronin, SJ., Stewart, C., Bhattacharyya, S., & Donahoe, R. (2016). Posteruptive impacts of pyroclastic deposits from basaltic andesite stratovolcanoes on surface water composition. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 121(5), 1275-1287
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Wilson, TM., Stewart, C., Wardman, JB., Wilson, G., Johnston, DM., Hill, D., . . . Roberts, L. (2014). Volcanic ashfall preparedness poster series: a collaborative process for reducing the vulnerability of critical infrastructure. Journal of Applied Volcanology. 3(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Leonard, GS., Stewart, C., Wilson, TM., Procter, JN., Scott, BJ., Keys, HJ., . . . McBride, SK. (2014). Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 286, 208-232
[Journal article]Authored by: Procter, J., Stewart, C.
Cronin, SJ., Stewart, C., Zernack, AV., Brenna, M., Procter, JN., Pardo, N., . . . Irwin, M. (2014). Volcanic ash leachate compositions and assessment of health and agricultural hazards from 2012 hydrothermal eruptions, Tongariro, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 286, 233-247
[Journal article]Authored by: Procter, J., Stewart, C., Zernack, A.
Leonard, GS., Stewart, C., Wilson, TM., Procter, JN., Scott, BJ., Keys, HJ., . . . McBride, SK. (2014). Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.
[Journal article]Authored by: Procter, J., Stewart, C.
Cronin, SJ., Stewart, C., Zernack, AV., Brenna, M., Procter, JN., Pardo, N., . . . Irwin, M. (2014). Volcanic ash leachate compositions and assessment of health and agricultural hazards from 2012 hydrothermal eruptions, Tongariro, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.
[Journal article]Authored by: Procter, J., Stewart, C., Zernack, A.
Wardman, JB., Wilson, TM., Bodger, PS., Cole, JW., & Stewart, C. (2012). Potential impacts from tephra fall to electric power systems: A review and mitigation strategies. Bulletin of Volcanology. 74(10), 2221-2241
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Wilson, T., Cole, J., Johnston, D., Cronin, S., Stewart, C., & Dantas, A. (2012). Short- and long-term evacuation of people and livestock during a volcanic crisis: Lessons from the 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson, Chile. Journal of Applied Volcanology. 1(1)
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Wilson, TM., Stewart, C., Sword-Daniels, V., Leonard, GS., Johnston, DM., Cole, JW., . . . Barnard, ST. (2012). Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 45-46, 5-23
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Wilson, T., Cole, J., Cronin, S., Stewart, C., & Johnston, D. (2011). Impacts on agriculture following the 1991 eruption of Vulcan Hudson, Patagonia: Lessons for recovery. Natural Hazards. 57(2), 185-212
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Wilson, TM., Cole, JW., Stewart, C., Cronin, SJ., & Johnston, DM. (2011). Ash storms: Impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile. Bulletin of Volcanology. 73(3), 223-239
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Cole, J., Johnston, D., & Cronin, S. (2010). Vulnerability of farm water supply systems to volcanic ash fall. Environmental Earth Sciences. 61(4), 675-688
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Pizzolon, L., Wilson, T., Leonard, G., Dewar, D., Johnston, D., . . . Cronin, S. (2009). Can volcanic ash poison water supplies?. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 5(4), 713-716
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & Conwell, C. (2008). Temporal changes in contaminated sediment: A neglected aspect of ecological risk assessment?. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 4(4), 517-519
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Johnston, DM., Leonard, GS., Horwell, CJ., Thordarson, T., & Cronin, SJ. (2006). Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 158(3-4), 296-306
[Journal article]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Gadd, J., Stewart, C., & Sikes, E. (2005). Estrogenic activity and known environmental estrogens in sewage effluent, Hamilton, New Zealand. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology. 11, 149-154
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & Thompson, JAJ. (1997). Vertical distribution of butyltin residues in sediments of british columbia harbours. Environmental Technology (United Kingdom). 18(12), 1195-1202
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
de Mora, SJ., Stewart, C., & Phillips, D. (1995). Sources and rate of degradation of tri(n-butyl)tin in marine sediments near Auckland, New Zealand. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 30(1), 50-57
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & Fergusson, JE. (1994). The use of peat in the historical monitoring of trace metals in the atmosphere. Environmental Pollution. 86(3), 243-249
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & Thompson, JAJ. (1994). Extensive butyltin contamination in southwestern coastal British Columbia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 28(10), 601-606
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Fergusson, JE., & Stewart, C. (1992). The transport of airborne trace elements copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese from a city into rural areas. Science of the Total Environment, The. 121(C), 247-269
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., de Mora, SJ., Jones, MRL., & Miller, MC. (1992). Imposex in New Zealand neogastropods. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 24(4), 204-209
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & De Mora, SJ. (1992). Elevated tri(n‐butyl)tin concentrations in shellfish and sediments from Suva Harbour, Fiji. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 6(6), 507-512
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Norton, DA., & Fergusson, JE. (1991). Historical monitoring of heavy metals in kahikatea ring wood in Christchurch, New Zealand. Science of the Total Environment, The. 105(C), 171-190
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & De Mora, SJ. (1990). A review of the degradation of tri(n-BUTYL) tin in the marine environment. Environmental Technology (United Kingdom). 11(6), 565-570
[Journal article]Authored by: Stewart, C.

Book

Stewart, C., Wilson, TM., Sword-Daniels, V., Wallace, KL., Magill, CR., Horwell, CJ., . . . Baxter, PJ. (2018). Communication Demands of Volcanic Ashfall Events. In Advances in Volcanology. (pp. 23 - 49).
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Wilson, TM., Jenkins, S., & Stewart, C. (2014). Impacts from Volcanic Ash Fall. In Volcanic Hazards, Risks and Disasters. (pp. 47 - 86).
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Wilson, TM., Jenkins, SF., & Stewart, C. (2015). Volcanic ash fall impacts. In Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk. (pp. 281 - 288).
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Jenkins, SF., Wilson, T., Magill, C., Miller, V., Stewart, C., Blong, R., . . . Costa, A. (2015). Volcanic ash fall hazard and risk. In Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk. (pp. 173 - 221).
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Wilson, T., & Stewart, C. (2013). Volcanic ASH. In Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. (pp. 1074 - 1076).
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Wilson, TM., Leonard, GS., Johnston, DM., Cole, JW., & Cronin, SJ. (2011). Volcanic hazards and water shortages. In Water Shortages: Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts. (pp. 105 - 124).
[Chapter]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Stewart, C. (1996). The efficacy of legislation in controlling tributyltin in the marine environment.. In SJ. de Mora (Ed.) Tributyltin: case study of an environmental contaminant. (pp. 264 - 297). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
[Chapter]Authored by: Stewart, C.

Report

Rovins, J., Stewart, C., & Brown, N. (2020). Learning from population displacement in the Pacific: case study of the 2017-2018 eruption of Ambae volcano, Vanuatu. SWOT analysis and recommendations.. ( Report No. Disaster Research Science Report 2020/04). Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University.
[Commissioned Report]Authored by: Rovins, J., Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Smid, E., Charlton, D., Leonard, GS., Tomasek, I., Wilson, TM., . . . Talbot, N.(2019). Preparing for a sustained volcanic degassing episode in Auckland. (Report No. SR2019/58). Lower Hutt: GNS Science
[Technical Report]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Hayes, Josh L., ., Deligne, NI., Bertin, L., Calderon, R., Wardman, JB., Wilson, TM., . . . Baxter, PJ.(2019). IMPACTS OF THE 2015 ERUPTION OF CALBUCO VOLCANO ON CHILEAN INFRASTRUCTURE, UTILITIES, AGRICULTURE, AND HEALTH. (Report No. GNS Science report 2019/04). Lower Hutt, New Zealand: GNS Science
[Technical Report]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., & Leonard, GS.(2019). Assessing the potential of a modified version of USEPA Method 1312 for use in eruption response in New Zealand. (Report No. GNS Science report 2018/41). Lower Hutt, New Zealand: GNS Science
[Technical Report]Authored by: Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Pearse, L., Pearse, A., Leonard, GS., Theophile, G., & Puech, M.(2016). Assessment of drinking-water quality, Tanna, Vanuatu. (Report No. GNS Science Report 2016/12). Lower Hutt, New Zealand: GNS Science
[Technical Report]Authored by: Stewart, C.

Conference

Brenin, M., Horswell, J., Stewart, C., Gutierrez-Gines, MJ., Bohm, K., & Johnston, D. (2021). How effective is a composting toilet system for protecting human health in an emergency context?. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. : New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering
[Conference Paper in Published Proceedings]Authored by: Johnston, D., Stewart, C.
Stewart, C., Horswell, J., Kim, N., Johnston, D., & Wotherspoon, L. (2019). Minimising public health risks from raw wastewater after a large Wellington Fault earthquake.. Proceedings of the 2019 Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering. : 2019 Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering
[Conference Paper in Published Proceedings]Authored by: Johnston, D., Kim, N., Stewart, C.

Consultancy and Languages

Consultancy

  • March 2018 - September 2018 - Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Technical expertise in environmental health assessment provided to assist Government of Vanuatu following Ambae eruptions
  • January 2016-February 2016 - Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery
    Contracted by GFDRR (a partnership of the World Bank and UN) to provide technical content on volcanic hazards for ThinkHazard!, a new web-based tool.
  • March 2014 - June 2015 - Environmental Protection Authority, Victoria, Australia
    Engaged to provide expert peer review services for environmental monitoring programme following coal mine fire.
  • May 2003 - Tasman District Council
    Contracted to provide expert witness services in support of a RMA prosecution

Languages

  • French
    Last used: 2018
    Spoken ability: Needs work
    Written ability: Needs work
  • Spanish
    Last used: 2019
    Spoken ability: Needs work
    Written ability: Needs work

Teaching and Supervision

Summary of Doctoral Supervision

Position Current Completed
Co-supervisor 2 0

Current Doctoral Supervision

Co-supervisor of:

  • Richard Mowll - Doctor of Philosophy
    Quantifying individual and household planning recommendations for infrastructure service delivery in a post-event response and recovery concext
  • Hayley Squance - Doctor of Philosophy
    Enhancing multi-agency collaboration in Animal Welfare Emergency Management